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Basic science points to clinical application in stopping tumor survival in low-oxygen environments
A series of studies funded to do only basic science and published today in the journal Cell reports the serendipitous discovery of a druggable target necessary for the survival of tumors in low-oxygen environments. (2013-06-06)

Cedars-Sinai Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute begins testing new vaccine designed to prevent recurrence of brain tumors
Researchers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center's Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute have launched a study of a new vaccine intended to prevent the return of malignant brain tumors that have been surgically removed. (2000-03-08)

Tumor mutations can predict chemo success
New work by MIT cancer biologists shows that the interplay between two key genes that are often defective in tumors determines how cancer cells respond to chemotherapy. The findings should have an immediate impact on cancer treatment, say Michael Hemann and Michael Yaffe, the two MIT biology professors who led the study. The work could help doctors predict what types of chemotherapy will be effective in a particular tumor, which would help tailor treatments to each patient. (2009-08-06)

Genetic 'whodunnit' for cancer gene solved
Long thought to suppress cancer by slowing cellular metabolism, the protein complex AMPK also seemed to help some tumors grow, confounding researchers. Now, Salk Institute researchers have solved the long-standing mystery around why AMPK can both hinder and help cancer. (2018-11-08)

Gene mutations found that lead to prostate cancer in mice new mouse model developed to study the disease
Researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) report in the February issue of Nature Genetics that inactivation of just one copy of a gene called PTEN and both copies of a gene called p27 leads to prostate cancer in mice 100 percent of the time. (2001-01-30)

Duke Medicine News new immune therapy successfully treats brain tumors in mice
Using an artificial protein that stimulates the body's natural immune system to fight cancer, a research team at Duke Medicine has engineered a lethal weapon that kills brain tumors in mice while sparing other tissue. If it can be shown to work in humans, it would overcome a major obstacle that has hampered the effectiveness of immune-based therapies. (2012-12-17)

Research detects mechanism that appears to enable deadly brain tumors to progress, develop blood supplies to fuel their growth, and invade neighboring healthy tissues
Using a technique called 'gene array' that allows them to analyze thousands of genes in one experiment, scientists at Cedars-Sinai's Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute have identified a new mechanism that may be a critical step in the development of a type of malignant brain tumor (glioblastoma multiforme or GBM) that has historically been virtually impervious to treatment. (2001-07-14)

Reviving exhausted immune cells to fight cancer
Eliminating a single gene can turn exhausted cancer-fighting immune cells known as CD8+ T cells back into refreshed soldiers that can continue to battle malignant tumors, a new study led by UT Southwestern researchers suggests. The findings, published online this week in the Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer, could offer a new way to harness the body's immune system to attack cancers. (2021-01-20)

Researchers find first gene for inherited testicular cancer in mice
In this week's journal Nature, researchers report finding the first gene responsible for inherited susceptibility of testicular cancer in mice. The Ter mutation occurs in a gene called dead end, which is involved in normal testicular development and which may play a role in inherited forms of a testicular cancer occurring in infants. The mutation causes a huge increase in testicular cancer incidence, from 5 percent to 94 percent. (2005-05-18)

Reassuring evidence: Anticancer drug does not accelerate tumor growth after treatment ends
Studies in animals have raised concerns that tumors may grow faster after the anticancer drug sunitinib is discontinued. But oncologists and physicists who collaborated to analyze data from the largest study of patients with kidney cancer convincingly demonstrate that such tumor acceleration does not occur in humans. The findings, publishing online on Feb. 7th in the Cell Press journal Cell Reports, suggest that sunitinib does not cause lingering risks for patients after their treatment ends. (2013-02-07)

Targeting lung cancer
As reported in the June 1 issue of G&D, Drs. Katerina Politi, Harold Varmus and colleagues at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York have developed a novel animal model of lung adenocarcinoma that will be of great use in testing the efficacy of targeted therapies against human lung cancer. (2006-05-17)

Minimally invasive lung cancer surgery can improve chemotherapy outcomes
Patients who undergo a minimally invasive lung cancer surgery called thoracoscopic lobectomy may derive more benefit from the chemotherapy that follows, according to Duke University Medical Center researchers. These patients also have shorter hospital stays and accelerated recovery time compared with patients who have their tumors removed using the traditional surgical approach that involves opening the chest. (2007-04-09)

Protein abundant in human tumors confers resistance to anticancer drugs
A research team led by Dr. Donald Kufe from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Massachusetts examined the role of a protein called MUC1 in drug resistance in cancer cells. The researchers conclude that abnormal overabundance of MUC1 in human tumors promotes cancer cell survival, even in the presence of agents that normally induce cancer cell death. The research study may have a significant impact in the design of future, more effective cancer treatments. (2004-02-23)

Researchers identify gene set linked to breast cancer's spread to lungs
In a potential advance for the treatment of aggressive breast cancer, scientists at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) have identified a set of genes in breast tumors that appear to predict if the disease will spread to the lungs and, once there, how virulent it will become. The findings shed new light on the biology of breast cancer metastasis, and could lead to a possible prognostic tool and new targets for breast cancer treatment. (2005-07-27)

Other highlights in the September 18 issue of JNCI
Other highlights include a study suggesting that smoking is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer among women infected by the human papillomavirus, a study of the role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in ovarian cancer, and a study suggesting that malignant urothelial cells may be susceptible to cell death by CD40 ligation. (2002-09-17)

Folic acid may reduce some childhood cancers
Folic acid fortification of foods may reduce the incidence of the most common type of kidney cancer and a type of brain tumors in children, finds a new study by Kimberly J. Johnson, Ph.D., assistant professor at the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis, and Amy Linabery, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow at the University of Minnesota. Incidence reductions were found for Wilms' tumor, a type of kidney cancer, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, a type of brain cancer. (2012-05-21)

Cancer cells use nerve-cell tricks to spread from one organ to the next
New research suggests that breast and lung tumors metastasize by hijacking a neural signaling pathway, potentially opening the door to better diagnostics and treatments. (2020-09-30)

Study sheds light on why some breast cancers have limited response to immunotherapy
In the Journal of Clinical Investigation, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers report on their study that explored a perplexing question: Why were drugs designed to unleash the immune system against cancer ineffective in a type of triple negative breast cancer with a heavy presence of immune cells? Their findings could lead to a strategy to improve immunotherapy responses in the 'claudin-low' subtype of breast cancer. (2017-08-21)

Romond heads up study and reduces breast cancer recurrence
Results from two clinical trials show that patients with early-stage breast cancer who received trastuzumab (Herceptin®) in combination with chemotherapy had a 52 percent decrease in risk for breast cancer recurrence, compared with patients who received the same chemotherapy without the drug. Dr. Edward Romond, associate professor of medicine at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine and UK Markey Cancer Center, acts as principal investigator on the study and chairs the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP). (2005-04-26)

Gene therapy success in the laboratory buoys hope for cancer treatment and prevention
Can simply swallowing a gene actually treat and prevent cancer? Perhaps. Scientists at Jefferson Medical College have stunning results showing that oral doses of gene therapy reduced the incidence of stomach cancer in animals genetically prone to develop tumors and which had been exposed to a cancer-causing substance. (2001-02-25)

Oregon Health Sciences University Researchers track long-term results of chemotherapy assisted by blood-brain barrier disruption
Long-term study of cognitive and physical impacts of blood- brain barrier disruption chemotherapy reveals high rate of success for patients with brain tumors. Survival rates were much higher for patients who underwent BBBD chemotherapy than patients who received a combination of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. (2000-01-10)

Targeted radiation therapy can control limited cancer spread
Precisely targeted radiation therapy can eradicate all evidence of disease in selected patients with cancer that has spread to only a few sites, suggests the first published report from an ongoing clinical trial. Radiation therapy controlled all signs of cancer in 21 percent of patients who had five or fewer disease sites. (2008-08-12)

SPECT provides high-quality images of small tumors
A new study shows that combining high resolution and high sensitivity collimation provides better quality images when using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans, said researchers at SNM's 56th Annual Meeting. (2009-06-15)

New model taps tiny, common tropical fish for large-scale drug screening to combat Cushing disease
A common, tiny tropical fish plays a key role in a new model for Cushing disease, giving researchers a powerful tool to conduct extensive searches for effective treatments for this serious hormonal disorder, testing up to 300 drugs weekly. (2011-05-09)

Yale researchers develop injection to treat skin cancer
Yale researchers are developing a skin cancer treatment that involves injecting nanoparticles into the tumor, killing cancer cells with a two-pronged approach, as a potential alternative to surgery. (2021-02-02)

Microbubbles make breast cancer more susceptible to radiation therapy
Bursting oxygen-filled microbubbles in breast cancer makes tumors three times more sensitive to radiation therapy in preliminary tests with animal models of the disease (2018-01-29)

Gentle cancer treatment using nanoparticles works
Cancer treatments based on laser irridation of tiny nanoparticles that are injected directly into the cancer tumor are working and can destroy the cancer from within. Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute and the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Copenhagen have developed a method that kills cancer cells using nanoparticles and lasers. The treatment has been tested on mice and it has been demonstrated that the cancer tumors are considerably damaged. (2016-08-03)

Many solid tumors carry genetic changes targeted by existing compounds
Nearly two-thirds of solid tumors carry at least one mutation that may be targeted, or medicated, by an existing compound, according to new findings from researchers Fox Chase Cancer Center that will be presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology on June 3. The results suggest that it may one day become commonplace for doctors to sequence tumors before deciding on a treatment regimen. (2013-05-30)

Gene discovery made easier with powerful new networking technique
The identification of disease-causing genes will be much easier and faster using a powerful new gene-networking model developed by researchers at The University of Texas at Austin. (2008-01-29)

Kaposi sarcoma arises independently from multiple cells
Kaposi sarcoma is unique among cancers because most tumors grow from a small number of different cells, whereas nearly all other cancers arise from a single cell, according to a study published online July 10 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (2007-07-10)

In those genetically predisposed, 'developmental reprogramming' could explain cancer risk
Researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center may have uncovered the reason why some people who are genetically predisposed to hormone-dependent cancers develop the disease as an adult, while others who are similarly susceptible don't. (2005-05-30)

Taking folic acid does not reduce risk of precancerous colon tumors
Taking folic acid supplements does not reduce the risk of developing precancerous tumors in the colon and may even increase the risk, a new study has found. (2007-06-08)

Sunlight, PCB exposure enhance skin cancer chances
Sunlight and PCB exposure can hit you where you least expect it. The combination enhances the development of non-melanoma skin cancer on parts of the body not directly exposed to the sun, according to a University of Illinois study. (2002-03-21)

Protein can predict progression of most common childhood brain tumor
Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas have discovered that the presence of a particular protein can predict whether the most common childhood brain tumor will continue to grow or return following surgery. (2003-07-28)

Radiofrequency, chemotherapy prove effective duo in destroying tumors
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with chemotherapy is currently being used to treat malignant liver tumors at a Boston hospital on the basis of results from a new study appearing in the July issue of the journal Radiology. (2003-06-19)

Dogs, humans, put heads together to find cure for brain cancer
Pinpointing the genes involved in human brain cancer can be like looking for a needle in a haystack, and sometimes the needle you find may not be the right one. (2009-07-06)

Eating eggs when pregnant affects breast cancer in offspring
A stunning discovery based on epigenetics (the inheritance of propensities acquired in the womb) reveals that consuming choline -- a nutrient found in eggs and other foods -- during pregnancy may significantly affect breast cancer outcomes for a mother's offspring. This finding by Boston University biologists is the first to link choline consumption during pregnancy to breast cancer. It also is the first to identify possible choline-related genetic changes that affect breast cancer survival rates. (2008-12-01)

A lifetime of paying it forward
William Shapiro, M.D., and Joan Rankin Shapiro, Ph.D., have collaborated for 20 years to help build a world-renowned brain tumor research center at Barrow Neurological Institute at St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center. After years of dedicated patient care and research, the Shapiros have established a $1.5 million endowed chair dedicated to neuro-oncology research. (2009-02-27)

Targeted treatment could prevent spread of pancreatic cancer, heart damage
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine have shown that a new targeted treatment could benefit patients with certain pancreatic tumors by preventing spread of the cancer and protecting their heart from damage -- a direct result of the tumor. Higher levels of serotonin among other tumor secretions can cause injury to the valves of the heart over time, leading to cardiac impairment -- a condition referred to as cardiac carcinoid disease -- in these patients. (2017-11-30)

Sensitive new assay finds abnormalities in tumor cells that other techniques may miss
RNA-Seq, a new next-generation assay, can detect gene fusions in solid tumor cells with high accuracy and excellent reproducibility. According to a new report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, the assay detected 93 percent of gene fusions identified by currently available methods with no false positives. Importantly, gene fusions missed by other techniques were found, including 18 that had never been described before. This study paves the way for clinical use to advance the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors. (2018-06-18)

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