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Virus with an eggshell
Avian flu can be transmitted from birds to humans; transmission among humans, however, is limited. The reason may be an eggshell-like mineral layer that the virus acquires due to the high calcium concentration in the intestines of birds. As reported by Chinese researchers in the journal Angewandte Chemie, these mineralized viruses are significantly more infectious and, in addition, more robust and heat stable than the native viruses. (2017-08-18)

New Phytopathology journal focus issue emphasizes virological advances
Given the importance of and rapid research progress in plant virology in recent years, Phytopathology emphasized virological advances in its Fundamental Aspects of Plant Viruses focus issue, which is available now. (2020-01-08)

Viral complementation allows HIV-1 replication without integration, NYU Dental research shows
Weak HIV viruses piggyback onto stronger ones, raising the possibility that the human body may harbor many more HIV viruses capable of replicating and contributing to the development of AIDS than previously thought, a New York University College of Dentistry AIDS research team has found. (2008-07-08)

Virus discovery helps scientists predict emerging diseases
Fresh insight into how viruses such as SARS and flu can jump from one species to another may help scientists predict the emergence of diseases in future. (2011-09-22)

Study demonstrates SARS-CoV-2 emergence was associated with a large drop in the circulation of other respiratory viruses during the first wave
Analysis of samples taken to test for respiratory viruses over the past five years suggests that the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a large drop in circulation of other common respiratory viruses during the first wave. The study, presented at this week's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID), is by Dr Stephen Poole, BRC Clinical Research Fellow from the Southampton NIHR BRC, Southampton, UK, and colleagues. (2020-09-25)

When viruses infect bacteria
Viruses are the most abundant parasites on Earth. Well known viruses, such as the flu virus, attack human hosts, while viruses such as the tobacco mosaic virus infect plant hosts. (2011-06-30)

Report on viruses looks beyond disease
In contrast to their negative reputation as disease causing agents, some viruses can perform crucial biological and evolutionary functions that help to shape the world we live in today, according to a new report by the American Academy of Microbiology. (2014-07-22)

Viruses, oxygen and our green oceans
Some of the oxygen we breathe today is being produced because of viruses infecting micro-organisms in the world's oceans, scientists heard Wednesday, April 2, 2008, at the Society for General Microbiology's 162nd meeting being held this week at the Edinburgh International Conference Centre. (2008-04-01)

New bat virus could hold key to Hendra virus
Australian scientists have discovered a new virus in bats that could help shed light on how Hendra and Nipah viruses cause disease and death in animals and humans. (2012-08-02)

Targeting hit-and-run cancer viruses
Viruses that can invade host cells, initiate cancer and then flee from their own trail of destruction could be stopped in their tracks, say researchers writing in the September issue of the Journal of General Virology. (2010-08-18)

Study reveals potential treatments for Ebola and a range of other deadly viruses
Illnesses caused by many of the world's most deadly viruses cannot be effectively treated with existing drugs or vaccines. A study published by Cell Press in the March 21 issue of the journal Chemistry & Biology has revealed several compounds that can inhibit multiple viruses, such as highly lethal Ebola virus, as well as pathogens responsible for rabies, mumps, and measles, opening up new therapeutic avenues for combating highly pathogenic viruses. (2013-03-21)

Bat influenza viruses possess an unexpected genetic plasticity
Bat-borne influenza viruses enter host cells by utilizing surface exposed MHC-II molecules of various species, including humans. Now, an international research team from Germany (Medical Center -- University of Freiburg and Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, island of Riems) and the United States (Colorado State University, Fort Collins and Kansas State University, Manhattan) addressed concerns about the zoonotic spill-over potential and discovered an unexpected high genetic plasticity of the bat influenza virus H18N11 with unpredictable consequences. (2019-09-17)

Studies showing how bird flu viruses could adapt to humans offer surveillance and vaccine strategies
Bird flu viruses are potentially highly lethal and pose a global threat, but relatively little is known about why certain strains spread more easily to humans than others. Two studies identify mutations that increase the infectivity of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses through improved binding to receptors in the human respiratory tract. The findings offer much-needed strategies for monitoring the emergence of dangerous bird flu strains capable of infecting humans and for developing more effective vaccines. (2013-06-06)

Reverse genetics allow scientists to slow the spread of the Rubella virus
Scientists have identified the gene that allows the Rubella virus to block cell death and reverse engineered a mutant gene that slows the virus's spread. Tom Hobman and a team of researchers at the University of Alberta's Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry believed that RNA viruses were able to spread by blocking the pathways in cells that lead to cell suicide, and isolated the responsible gene in Rubella, also known as German measles. (2011-02-17)

MSU-based scientists explained the survivability of viruses
An employee of Belozersky Research Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology (RI PCB), MSU together with a Russian colleague analyzed the ways of increasing the survivability of RNA-containing viruses as well as the mechanisms that help them get rid of adverse mutations. The study was published in Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews journal. (2018-04-26)

The structure of a virus infecting bacteria resembles a human virus
New research has revealed that the structure of a bacteriophage, a virus infecting bacteria, resembles that of certain dangerous viruses that infect people. Studying this bacteriophage reveals various characteristics about viruses and their life cycle without having to study actual human viruses. (2006-06-21)

Targeting a conserved cell pathway may offer treatments for numerous viruses, including SARS-CoV-2
Scientists have identified a small molecule that inhibits multiple different viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in tissue culture and in mice by targeting the same signaling pathway. By identifying a host cell pathway that a wide variety of viruses rely on for successful infection, the findings suggest a possible target for broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. (2020-08-14)

Discovery in Africa gives insight for Australian Hendra virus outbreaks
A new study on African bats provides a vital clue for unraveling the mysteries in Australia's battle with the deadly Hendra virus. (2012-01-12)

Great mystery unravelled: Most viruses and bacteria fall from the sky
The mechanisms responsible for the dispersal of these microorganisms at the global scale are still practically unknown. However, this pioneering project marks the first time that researchers have quantified the amount of viruses and bacteria deposited in the high mountains of Sierra Nevada after­ travelling thousands of kilometres in the Earth's atmosphere. The research team was also able to determine that these viruses and bacteria are primarily transported from the Atlantic Ocean and the Sahara Desert. (2018-03-01)

Yellowstone viruses 'jump' between hot pools
Researchers at Montana State University and Idaho National Laboratory embarked on one of the first comprehensive, long-term characterizations of hot pool ecosystems in Yellowstone National Park. The results help shed light on how viruses survive in hostile surroundings, migrate from pool to pool, and may help control hot pool environments. (2007-11-12)

New research shows domestic animals link virus spread among humans and wildlife
New research carried out at Swansea University has highlighted the role domesticated animals -- both pets and livestock -- play in the spread of viruses among humans and wildlife. according to new research involving Swansea University. However, the study has revealed the patterns of how viruses are shared differs between the two major groups of RNA and DNA viruses. (2019-12-19)

Gene therapy anti-cancer research featured in Scientific American
Magazine's special cancer edition focuses on a pair of University of Alabama at Birmingham doctors because of their research into a field call viral gene therapy, or virotherapy. The two were optimistic of the promise; (2008-08-22)

A gateway for Ebola/Marburg viruses
Ebola and Marburg viruses (belonging to the family of filoviruses) are two of the most pathogenic viruses in humans, with mortality rates from infection reaching as high as 80%. Effective therapies and vaccines are dependent upon a more complete understanding of the virus life-cycles, including the mechanisms by which these viruses enter and exit the cells they infect. (2002-03-03)

How well will the flu vaccine work this winter?
Scientists from UTMB and Biomed Protection predicted which H3N2 variants would become 'vaccine resistant', and this prediction has been confirmed during the 2017 Australian flu season. The results published suggest that the current flu vaccine will work better during the 2018 US flu season than the 2017 Australian flu season. (2017-12-13)

Molecular fossils uncover link between viruses and the immune system
Researchers from the Viikki Biocenter, University of Helsinki, show that atomic structures can reveal evolutionary history of viruses in a similar fashion as fossils did for the dinosaurs and reptiles. Their article is published in the April 15 issue of Molecular Cell. (2005-04-14)

New cancer vaccine platform a potential tool for efficacious targeted cancer therapy
Researchers at the University of Helsinki have discovered a solution in the form of a cancer vaccine platform for improving the efficacy of oncolytic viruses used in cancer treatment. (2018-10-05)

Protecting drinking water from disease transmission by means of zeolite filters
Scientists have experimented with the removal of viruses from drinking waterby using a filter made of naturally occurring minerals known as zeolites. The development of an inexpensive means for blocking the transmission of bacteria and viruses to humans could significantly reduce disease outbreaks associated with groundwater and could also alleviate concerns regarding bioterrorist threats to drinking water supplies. In the field, zeolite treated with HDTMA removed at least 99 percent of viruses from the water and 100 percent of E. coli. (2002-04-26)

'Defensive' action by influenza viruses demonstrated by Hebrew university researcher
A Hebrew University of Jerusalem researcher, Prof. Isaiah (Shy) T. Arkin, has revealed how influenza-causing viruses adapt to nullify the effectiveness of the anti-viral drug symmetrel (generic name). (2004-09-05)

Newly discovered protein gives signal for virus infection
Researchers at the University of Zurich have discovered a protein that enables adenoviruses to infect human cells. The Mib1 protein gives the virus the signal to uncoat the DNA and release it into the nucleus. Blocking this protein could therefore help people with weakened immune systems to fight dangerous viruses. (2019-12-17)

Spanish flu-like virus with pandemic potential could emerge in bird populations
Emerging bird flu viruses continually threaten to cause pandemics, underscoring the need for better ways to predict potential outbreaks. A new study shows that circulating bird flu viruses are very similar to the flu virus that caused the 1918 pandemic -- the most devastating disease outbreak ever recorded. Only a few amino acids separate viral proteins currently found in bird populations from proteins in the 1918 virus, suggesting that a similar deadly virus may emerge. (2014-06-11)

1 step closer to a vaccine for a common respiratory disease
Young children and the elderly are especially susceptible to respiratory syncytial virus. The three-dimensional structure of respiratory syncytial virus has been solved by an international team from Finland and Switzerland. (2013-06-17)

Virginia Tech Researchers Receive Patent For Rapid Virus Detection Technology
Outbreaks of intestinal diseases are often caused by viruses, according to Charles Hagedorn, Virginia Tech professor of ... Marian Ijzerman, Ph.D. graduate now with the EPA, along with Hagedorn, her advisor, and biology professor Joe Falkinham, have received a patent for a ÒRapid Virus Detection Technology,Ó which they developed for drinking water, recreational waters, and groundwater. (1996-08-12)

Safer viruses for vaccine research and diagnosis
A new technology to produce safer 'hybrid' viruses at high volumes for use in vaccines and diagnostics for mosquito-borne diseases has been developed at The University of Queensland. Researchers from UQ and QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute have exploited the benign characteristics of the Binjari virus - inert to humans - to produce 'dangerous looking' mosquito-borne viruses such as Zika and dengue, but which cannot grow in humans or animals. (2019-12-11)

Animals can change genes quickly to keep up with viral ingenuity
Viruses are famous for evolving quickly, but the organisms they infect can't be expected to sit idly by. There is now new evidence that animals in fact do an impressive job of keeping up in the ongoing evolutionary arms race between viruses and their hosts. Studying a special class of genes thought to have evolved in part as a defense system against viruses, researchers have found evidence that these genes are indeed among the fastest-evolving in the genome of the fruit fly, Drosophila. (2006-03-20)

Viruses on glaciers highlight evolutionary mechanism to overcome host defenses
An international team of scientists led by Christopher Bellas from the University of Innsbruck, Austria, studying life on the surface of glaciers in the Arctic and Alps challenge assumptions on virus evolution. Their study, now published in the journal Nature Communications shows that, contrary to expectations, the viruses on glaciers in the Alps, Greenland and Spitsbergen are remarkably stable in the environment. (2020-09-02)

Ancient viral 'fossils' reveal evolutionary mechanisms
Studying DNA fragments left by ancient viruses in their host's genome has shown even non-autonomous viruses could prosper by helping each other. (2017-06-29)

Expanding researchers' knowledge of the microbial defense toolkit
A new study identifies a wide array of previously unknown molecular functions and enzymatic activities microbes use to protect against viral threats. (2020-08-27)

Diverse intestinal viruses may play a role in AIDS progression
In monkeys and humans with AIDS, damage to the gastrointestinal tract is common. How this gastric damage occurs has remained a mystery, but now researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Cell provide new clues, implicating the presence of potentially pathogenic virus species other than the main virus that causes AIDS. The findings could provide an opportunity to explain and eventually intervene in the processes that lead to AIDS progression. (2012-10-11)

Whitefly spreads emerging plant viruses
A tiny whitefly is responsible for spreading a group of plant viruses that cause devastating disease on food, fiber, and ornamental crops, say plant pathologists with the American Phytopathological Society. (2007-01-18)

Lines blurring between human herpes simplex viruses
The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) that commonly infects the mouth, is continuing to mix with the genital herpes virus (HSV-2) to create new, different recombinant versions. Genital co-infection with both viruses could create opportunities for the viruses to recombine. This ability of the viruses to recombine poses problems for vaccine development, due to the risk of a live vaccine for genital herpes mixing with HSV-1 to form an infectious recombinant. (2019-04-30)

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