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Penn study blocks Ebola virus budding by regulating calcium signaling
A new study led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine showed that blocking a calcium-signaling pathway could inhibit not only the Ebola virus, but also Marburg, Lassa and Junin viruses, all sources of deadly infections. (2015-10-30)

Newly discovered marine viruses offer glimpse into untapped biodiversity
Studying bacteria from the Baltic Sea, University of Arizona researchers have discovered an entire array of previously unknown viruses that use these bacteria as hosts. By impacting the life cycles of these bacteria, the viruses play indirect but crucial ecological roles in environments ranging from the oceans and sea ice to the human gut. (2013-07-24)

New research helps explain why bird flu has not caused a pandemic
Bird flu viruses would have to make at least two simultaneous genetic mutations before they could be transmitted readily from human to human, according to research published today in PLoS ONE. (2009-11-18)

Researchers discover how compounds prevent viruses from entering cells
Compounds called defensins -- known to prevent viruses from entering cells -- appear to do so by preventing the virus from merging to cells' outer membrane, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (2005-09-15)

Meet the tiny machines in cells that massacre viruses
When viruses infect the body's cells, those cells face a difficult problem. How can they destroy viruses without harming themselves? Scientists at University of Utah Health have found an answer by visualizing a tiny cellular machine that chops the viruses' genetic material into bits. Their research shows how the machine detects the intruders and processes them for destruction to protect cells and prevent the spread of infection. (2017-12-21)

Bird flu finds children's lungs faster
New findings, reported in today in the online open-access journal Respiratory Research, about how the virus binds to the respiratory tract and lungs suggest children may be particularly susceptible to avian influenza. The results also mean that previous receptor distribution studies may have to be re-evaluated. (2007-10-24)

UCI microbiologists find new approach to fighting viral illnesses
By discovering how certain viruses use their host cells to replicate, UC Irvine microbiologists have identified a new approach to the development of universal treatments for viral illnesses such as meningitis, encephalitis, hepatitis and possibly the common cold. (2012-08-22)

New vaccine element could generate better protection from avian influenza
Current vaccines for influenza provide protection against specific seasonal influenza A strains and their close relatives, but not against more distant seasonal influenza A viruses and new avian influenza A viruses, such as H5N1, which still poses a real global health concern. However, new data have been generated that suggest adding a new component to vaccines for influenza might enable them to confer protection against a broader range of avian and seasonal influenza A viruses. (2008-09-18)

Scientists uncover details of viral infections that drive environmental, human health
New research from The Ohio State University offers a glimpse into the complexity of interactions between bacteria and the viruses -- or phages -- that infect them. (2018-04-10)

Primate viruses transmitted to people through bushmeat
Researchers from the U.S. and Cameroon found that people in Central Africa who hunt monkeys and great apes are routinely being infected by retroviruses, the class of viruses that includes HIV. Their study is the first to document the transmission of a retrovirus from primates to people in natural settings. They report the presence of antibodies for simian foamy virus (SFV) in 1 percent of the people tested. (2004-03-18)

Previous exposure to flaviviruses increases effects of Zika
Prior infection with dengue or West Nile virus can enhance the effects of Zika infection, a new study using human samples tested in mice finds. (2017-03-30)

Researchers discover rare flu-thwarting mutation
Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center have identified a rare, naturally occurring influenza mutation that weakens the virus and could be used to develop new live flu vaccines. This is particularly advantageous in light of recent news that the current live flu vaccine is no longer working. (2016-10-03)

Poxviruses defeat antiviral defenses by duplicating a gene
Scientists have discovered that poxviruses, which are responsible for smallpox and other diseases, can adapt to defeat different host antiviral defenses by quickly and temporarily producing multiple copies of a gene that helps the viruses to counter host immunity. (2012-08-16)

Algae-killing viruses spur nutrient recycling in oceans
Scientists have confirmed that viruses can kill marine algae called diatoms and that diatom die-offs near the ocean surface may provide nutrients and organic matter for recycling by other algae, according to a Rutgers-led study. (2019-07-18)

Researchers find chink in the armor of viral 'tummy bug'
Researchers at Griffith University's Institute for Glycomics in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Melbourne have moved a step closer to identifying a broad spectrum treatment for the dreaded 'viral tummy bug' or rotavirus. (2008-12-22)

Viruses in the genome important for our brain
Over millions of years retroviruses have been incorporated into our human DNA, where they today make up almost 10 per cent of the total genome. A research group at Lund University in Sweden has now discovered a mechanism through which these retroviruses may have an impact on gene expression. This means that they may have played a significant role in the development of the human brain as well as in various neurological diseases. (2017-01-12)

Protein structure: Immune system foiled by a hairpin
The innate immune system detects invasive pathogens and activates defense mechanisms to eliminate them. Pathogens, however, employ a variety of tricks to block this process. A new study led by Karl-Peter Hopfner of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich shows how the measles virus thwarts the system, by means of a simple hairpin-like structure. (2013-01-21)

Mayo researchers describe measles viral protein movement
Mayo Clinic researchers have shown that proteins on the surface of a cell twist a viral protein into position, allowing the virus to start infection and cause disease, all in a movement as graceful as a ballroom dance. (2011-01-09)

Study of unexplained respiratory infections leads researchers to new virus
An ongoing effort to identify the microorganisms that make us sick has discovered a new virus potentially linked to unexplained respiratory infections. (2007-05-16)

U.Va. researchers identify switching action by protein 'gate-keepers' in cell nucleus
A switching mechanism that controls the entry of proteins into cell nuclei, where genetic material is stored, has been identified by researchers at the University of Virginia Health System, according to study results published in today's issue of the journal Cell. (2002-08-08)

Viruses' copying mechanism demystified, opening the door to new vaccine strategies
Certain kinds of viruses such as those that cause the common cold and hepatitis, copy themselves using a unique mechanism, according to a team of Penn State University scientists. The discovery sheds light on a never-before-understood region of an enzyme associated with the process of replicating genetic material. The research is an important step toward designing vaccines against viruses that have eluded vaccination strategies in the past, and improving existing vaccines. (2012-07-19)

Princeton researchers identify unexpected bottleneck in the spread of herpes simplex virus
New research suggests that just one or two individual herpes virus particles attack a skin cell in the first stage of an outbreak, resulting in a bottleneck in which the infection may be vulnerable to medical treatment. (2012-11-05)

Study: Simian foamy viruses readily occur between humans and macaques in urban Bangladesh
An international research team from the University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Jahangirnagar University has been examining transmission of a virus from monkeys to humans in Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. The scientists have found that some people in urban Bangladesh are concurrently infected with multiple strains of simian foamy virus, including strains from more than one source (recombinant) -- and call for more surveillance to prevent another outbreak like HIV. (2013-09-04)

Tackling airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors
Preventing airborne transmission of Covid-19 should be the next front of the battle against the virus, argue experts from the University of Surrey. (2020-05-28)

Interactions between simple molecular mechanisms give rise to complex infection dynamics
Bacteria can themselves be infected -- by viruses. Not all viruses are harmful to bacteria and some can even benefit them. Can bacteria tell good and bad viruses apart? Scientists now studied how infections with potentially beneficial viruses play out in bacteria that carry a certain type of anti-viral immune mechanism called restriction-modification. They show that population-level interactions between viruses and bacteria influence how the infection proceeds. (2018-01-08)

Viruses may one day help treat brain tumors
New research shows that a virus designed to kill cancer cells can significantly increase the survival of mice with an incurable human brain tumor, even in some animals with advanced disease. The study used a genetically altered herpes simplex virus that infects and reproduces only in malignant glioma cells and kills them. (2005-04-07)

From blank round to a potently active substance?
A long-forgotten candidate for antiviral therapy is undergoing a renaissance: Since the 1970s, the small molecule CMA has been considered a potent agent against viral infections, yet it was never approved for clinical use. Scientists at the Bonn University Hospital have now deciphered how the molecule can actually stimulate the immune system to combat viruses. The results are now being presented in the journal (2013-04-19)

Respiratory virus appears to be commonly identified among Kenyan children with severe pneumonia
Among infants and children hospitalized in Kenya with severe pneumonia, respiratory syncytial virus appears to be the predominant virus detected, according to a study in the May 26 issue of JAMA. (2010-05-25)

UW-Madison scientists illuminate structures vital to virus replication
Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. (2017-06-27)

Viruses con bacteria into working for them
MIT researchers have discovered that certain photosynthetic ocean bacteria need to beware of viruses bearing gifts. These viruses are really con artists carrying genetic material taken from their previous bacterial hosts that tricks the new host into using its own machinery to activate the genes, a process never before documented in any virus-bacteria relationship. The con occurs when a grifter virus injects its DNA into a bacterium living in a phosphorus-starved region of the ocean. (2012-01-26)

'Missing link' explains how viruses trigger immunity
A discovery by Melbourne researchers has solved a longstanding mystery of how viruses trigger protective immunity within our body. The research team demonstrated a protein called SIDT2 was crucial for cells to detect viral components in their environment, and initiate an immune response to reduce the virus' spread. (2017-09-12)

Study sheds light on asthma and respiratory viruses
In a new study that compared people with and without asthma, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis found no difference in the key immune response to viruses in the lungs and breathing passages. The work suggests that a fundamental antiviral defense mechanism is intact in asthma. This means that another aspect of the immune system must explain the difficulty people with asthma have when they encounter respiratory viruses. (2014-09-09)

BU researchers uncover viral small RNAs in mosquito cells
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) provide a new genomics resource that details the small RNA transcriptomes (gene expression) of four bio-medically important mosquito species. (2021-01-13)

Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals
Scientists in the Center for Infection and Immunity at the Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus in seals that is the closest known relative of the human hepatitis A virus. The finding provides new clues on the emergence of hepatitis A. The research appears in the July/August issue of mBio, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. (2015-08-25)

CSU's BioMARC helps advance vaccines for Department of Defense
Colorado State University's Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing and Academic Resource Center (BioMARC) has been awarded a 10-month, $4.6 million contract funded by the Department of Defense (DoD) to help develop and manufacture new vaccines to fight encephalitic viruses that cause inflammation of the brain. (2016-01-20)

UNH researchers discover new pathways that could help treat RNA viruses
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have identified new pathways in an RNA-based virus where inhibitors, like medical treatments, unbind. The finding could be beneficial in understanding how these inhibitors react and potentially help develop a new generation of drugs to target viruses with high death rates, like HIV-1, Zika, Ebola and SARS-CoV2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (2020-07-22)

New technique tracks viral infections, aids development of antiviral drugs
Scientists at the Naval Research Laboratory Center for Bio-Molecular Science and Engineering have developed a method to rapidly measure thousands of cells and quickly determine the presence of viruses. (2011-04-11)

Novel antiviral drug concept targets number of human viruses
In laboratory studies, an entirely new approach to antiviral drug development is showing remarkable effectiveness. The strategy targets viruses at such a fundamental level that it may prove useful against a wide array of viruses. And, because the approach attacks viruses indirectly, viral drug resistance is extremely unlikely to develop. (2000-04-20)

BUSM researchers show an oncolytic virus switches off cancer cell survival signal
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have identified a mechanism by which specific viruses acting as oncolytic agents can enter and kill cancer cells. This finding, which is currently featured in an online edition of the Journal of Virology, could help lead to the development of more targeted treatments against many types of cancer. (2010-12-01)

US develops lethal new viruses
A scientist funded by the US government has deliberately engineered an extremely deadly strain of mousepox, a relative of smallpox, that kills 100 per cent of mice even if they have been vaccinated. The researcher tells New Scientist that the work is necessary to explore what bioterrorists might do. However, many researchers think this latest pox research is risky, bringing with it the terrifying prospect of pox viruses being turned into diseases lethal to humans. (2003-10-29)

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