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Science current events and breaking science news on health, climate change, nanotechnology, the environment, stem cells, global warming, current cancer research, physics, biology, computer science, astronomy, endangered species and alternative energy.

Family income, parental education related to brain structure in children and adolescents

Characterizing associations between socioeconomic factors and children's brain development, a team including investigators from nine universities across the country reports correlative links between family income and brain structure.




Glimpses of the future: Drought damage leads to widespread forest death

The 2000-2003 drought in the American southwest triggered a widespread die-off of forests around the region.

Renewables re-energized: Green energy investments worldwide surge 17 percent to $270 billion in 2014 (UNEP)

Global investments in renewable energy rebounded strongly last year, registering a solid 17% increase after two years of declines and brushing aside the challenge from sharply lower crude oil prices.

The CNIO identifies a new gene involved in hereditary neuroendocrine tumors

Researchers in the Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) -- led by Alberto Cascón and Mercedes Robledo -- have described the presence of mutations in the MDH2 gene, in a family with very rare neuroendocrine tumours associated with a high hereditary component: pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas that affect the suprarenal and parathyroid glands (groups of chromaffin cells in the central nervous system), respectively.

Direct evidence for a positive feedback in climate change

A new study has confirmed the existence of a positive feedback operating in climate change whereby warming itself may amplify a rise in greenhouse gases resulting in additional warming.

Generous welfare benefits make people more likely to want to work, not less

Survey responses from 19,000 people in 18 European countries, including the UK, showed that "the notion that big welfare states are associated with widespread cultures of dependency, or other adverse consequences of poor short term incentives to work, receives little support."

Wearable technology can help with public speaking

Speaking in public is the top fear for many people. Now, researchers from the Human-Computer Interaction Group at the University of Rochester have developed an intelligent user interface for "smart glasses" that gives real-time feedback to the speaker on volume modulation and speaking rate, while being minimally distracting.

Publication bias and 'spin' raise questions about drugs for anxiety disorders

A new analysis reported in JAMA Psychiatry raises serious questions about the increasingly common use of second-generation antidepressant drugs to treat anxiety disorders.

Massive study is first to explore historical ocean response to abrupt climate change

A 30-foot-long core sample of Pacific Ocean seafloor is changing what we know about ocean resiliency in the face of rapidly changing climate.

'Kul,' 'beibi' and 'plis' new words in informal Icelandic

Icelandic has, in contrast to other Nordic languages, a vocabulary that is well preserved in relation to the Old Norse roots, and the Icelanders have worked hard to keep it that way.

Innovative strategies needed to address the US transplant organ shortage

As the United States faces transplant waiting lists that continue to grow longer over time, there is increasing debate about the proper way to incentivize living donations.

Newly enlisted T-cell 'policemen' can slow down run-away immune system, SLU scientist says

In research published in the March issue of Immunity, Saint Louis University scientists led by Daniel Hawiger, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of molecular microbiology and immunology, have discovered that potentially aggressive T-cells that might lead to auto-immune disease can instead be enlisted to help "police" over-active immune responses, via the molecule CD5.

Mount Sinai scientists establish link between ALS and the body's response to viral infection

A key protein previously implicated in Lou Gehrig's disease and other neurological diseases plays an important role in the response to viral infection, according to a study led by scientists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai published today in Nature Immunology.

Biology in a twist -- deciphering the origins of cell behavior

Researchers at the Mechanobiology Institute (MBI) at the National University of Singapore have discovered that the inherent 'handedness' of molecular structures directs the behaviour of individual cells and confers them the ability to sense the difference between left and right.

New scientific review suggests some women may benefit from considering use of S-equol to ease menopause symptoms

The investigational S-equol nutritional supplement may be a viable agent to alleviate certain menopause symptoms, such as hot flashes, according to a new peer-reviewed article in the March Journal of Women's Health.

'Atomic chicken-wire' is key to faster DNA sequencing

An unusual and very exciting form of carbon - that can be created by drawing on paper- looks to hold the key to real-time, high throughput DNA sequencing, a technique that would revolutionise medical research and testing.

Goodbye, range anxiety? Electric vehicles may be more useful than previously thought

In the first study of its kind, scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) quantitatively show that electric vehicles (EVs) will meet the daily travel needs of drivers longer than commonly assumed.

Impact of domestic violence on women's mental health

In addition to their physical injuries, women who are victims of domestic violence are also at a greater risk of mental health problems such as depression and psychotic symptoms.

Researchers find new link between neurodegenerative diseases and abnormal immune responses

Researchers from McMaster University and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York have discovered that a protein associated with neurodegenerative diseases like ALS also plays an important role in the body's natural antiviral response.

Low vitamin D linked to worse prognosis in type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

A new study found that people with lower vitamin D levels prior to treatment for follicular lymphoma succumb to the disease or face relapse earlier than patients with sufficient vitamin D levels in their blood.

To stop cancer: Block its messages

The average living cell needs communication skills: It must transmit a constant stream of messages quickly and efficiently from its outer walls to the inner nucleus, where most of the day-to-day decisions are made.

3-D human skin maps aid study of relationships between molecules, microbes and environment

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences used information collected from hundreds of skin swabs to produce three-dimensional maps of molecular and microbial variations across the body.

How a deadly fungus evades the immune system

New research from the University of Toronto has scientists re-thinking how a lethal fungus grows and kills immune cells.

How immune c lls facilitate the spread of breast cancer

The body's immune system fights disease, infections and even cancer, acting like foot soldiers to protect against invaders and dissenters.

The killer protein, properly explained

"It will still take many years to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of the characteristic plaques seen in brains affected by Alzheimer's disease", explains Alessandro Laio, SISSA professor.

Could antibodies from camels protect humans from MERS?

Antibodies from dromedary camels protected uninfected mice from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and helped infected mice expunge the disease, according to a study published online March 18th in the Journal of Virology, a journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.

UNH geologist identifies new source of methane for gas hydrates in Arctic

Research led by a University of New Hampshire professor has identified a new source of methane for gas hydrates -- ice-like substances found in sediment that trap methane within the crystal structure of frozen water -- in the Arctic Ocean.

LiDAR studies of the Sept. 2013 Colorado Front Range flooding and debris flows

Scott W. Anderson and colleagues use repeat aerial LiDAR to quantify the erosional impact of the heavy rains that inundated the Colorado Front Range in September 2013.

Carnegie Mellon researchers create 'Wikipedia' for neurons

The decades worth of data that has been collected about the billions of neurons in the brain is astounding.

Moving upstream to promote a healthier nation

The Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) proudly announces the publication of a Health Education & Behavior (HE&B) supplement devoted to the latest research and practice on policy and environmental approaches to foster healthy communities.

High-tech method allows rapid imaging of functions in living brain

Researchers studying cancer and other invasive diseases rely on high-resolution imaging to see tumors and other activity deep within the body's tissues.

Climate change costing soybean farmers

Even during a good year, soybean farmers nationwide are, in essence, taking a loss. That's because changes in weather patterns have been eating into their profits and taking quite a bite: $11 billion over the past 20 years.

Ob/Gyn experts recommend 'ultrasound first' for imaging the female pelvis

Ultrasound technology has evolved dramatically in recent years. A group of noted obstetricians and gynecologists maintain that ultrasound is more cost-effective and safer than other imaging modalities for imaging the female pelvis and should be the first imaging modality used for patients with pelvic symptoms.

New drug stalls estrogen receptor-positive cancer cell growth and shrinks tumors

An experimental drug rapidly shrinks most tumors in a mouse model of human breast cancer, researchers report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Researchers develop new potential drug for rare leukemia

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed a new drug that shows potential in laboratory studies against a rare type of acute leukemia.

'Lightning bolts' in the brain show learning in action

Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have captured images of the underlying biological activity within brain cells and their tree-like extensions, or dendrites, in mice that show how their brains sort, store and make sense out of information during learning.

Sea change: What took decades to destroy in oceans took millennia to recover

Ocean ecosystems that experience rapid upheaval because of climate change can take thousands of years to recover, according to an examination of fossilized ocean fauna on the seafloor by the University of California, Davis.

Endoscopes linked to outbreak of drug-resistant E. coli

An outbreak of a novel Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain resistant to antibiotics has been linked to contaminated endoscopes in a Washington state hospital.

Mild winters not fueling all pine beetle outbreaks in western United States

Warming winters have allowed mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the coldest areas of the western United States, but milder winters can't be blamed for the full extent of recent outbreaks in the region, a Dartmouth College and U.S. Forest Service study finds.

UF study finds vitamin D can affect pain, movement in obese osteoarthritis patients

Got milk? If you are overweight and have osteoarthritis, you may want to bone up on your dairy products that have vitamin D.

Scientists find clues into cognitive dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome

Scientists at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health have identified a unique pattern of immune molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid of people with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) that provides insights into the basis for cognitive dysfunction--frequently described by patients as "brain fog"--as well as new hope for improvements in diagnosis and treatment.

Pig-borne disease most likely jumped into humans when rearing practices changed

Almost every pig carries harmless strains of the S. suis bacterium - such strains are known as 'commensal' strains.

As stars form, magnetic fields influence regions big and small

Stars form when gravity pulls together material within giant clouds of gas and dust. But gravity isn't the only force at work.

Clues to aging from long-lived lemurs

When Jonas the lemur died in January, just five months short of his thirtieth birthday, he was the oldest of his kind.

To statin or not to statin?

Cholesterol-lowering statins have transformed the treatment of heart disease. But while the decision to use the drugs in patients with a history of heart attacks and strokes is mostly clear-cut, that choice can be a far trickier proposition for the tens of millions of Americans with high cholesterol but no overt disease.

Good luck and the Chinese reverse global forest loss

Analysis of 20 years of satellite data has revealed the total amount of vegetation globally has increased by almost 4 billion tonnes of carbon since 2003.

Researchers discover bacterial genetic pathway involved in body odor production

For many, body odour is an unfortunate side effect of their daily lives. The smell is caused by bacteria on the skin breaking down naturally secreted molecules contained within sweat.

Super sensitive measurement of magnetic fields

There are electrical signals in the nervous system, the brain and throughout the human body and there are tiny magnetic fields associated with these signals that could be important for medical science.

Setting a dinner table for wildlife can affect their risk of disease

Supplemental feeding of wildlife can increase the spread of some infectious diseases and decrease the spread of others.

York U study: Functional decline in women at Alzheimer's risk relates to deteriorating brain wiring

In their latest brain imaging study on women at risk for Alzheimer's disease, York University researchers have found deterioration in the pathways that serve to communicate signals between different brain regions needed for performing everyday activities such as driving a car or using a computer.

Scientists discover why flowers bloom earlier in a warming climate

Scientists at the John Innes Centre have discovered why the first buds of spring come increasingly earlier as the climate changes.

Scientists link unexplained childhood paralysis to enterovirus D68

A research team led by UC San Francisco scientists has found the genetic signature of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in half of California and Colorado children diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis - sudden, unexplained muscle weakness and paralysis - between 2012 and 2014, with most cases occurring during a nationwide outbreak of severe respiratory illness from EV-D68 last fall.

Prototype 'nanoneedles' generate new blood vessels in mice

Scientists have developed tiny 'nanoneedles' that have successfully prompted parts of the body to generate new blood vessels, in a trial in mice.

DNA alterations may predict treatment response in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia patients

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a relatively rare cancer of the blood that primarily affects adults.

Short bouts of high-intensity exercise before a fatty meal best for vascular health

A short burst of intensive exercise before eating a high fat meal is better for blood vessel function in young people than the currently recommended moderate-intensity exercise, according to a new study from the University of Exeter.

Only 1 of 32 hockey helmets tested earn 3-star rating

Virginia Tech has helped change football for a decade, making the sport safer for athletes without losing the thrill of participating or watching a rugged, intense sport. Now its College of Engineering turns to the ice for hockey.

Compound from soil microbe inhibits biofilm formation

Researchers have shown that a known antibiotic and antifungal compound produced by a soil microbe can inhibit another species of microbe from forming biofilms--microbial mats that frequently are medically harmful--without killing that microbe.

Princess Margaret scientists convert microbubbles to nanoparticles

Biomedical researchers led by Dr. Gang Zheng at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre have successfully converted microbubble technology already used in diagnostic imaging into nanoparticles that stay trapped in tumours to potentially deliver targeted, therapeutic payloads.

Mother's diet influences weight-control neurocircuits in offspring

Maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation may prime offspring for weight gain and obesity later in life, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers, who looked at rats whose mothers consumed a high-fat diet and found that the offsprings' feeding controls and feelings of fullness did not function normally.

Study: Worked-based wellness programs reduce weight

A new study shows that workplace wellness programs can be effective in helping people lose weight by providing healthier food choices and increasing opportunities for physical activity, particularly if these efforts are designed with the input and active participation of employees.

Study shows short & long-term cost-savings associated with minimally invasive surgery

Adding to the clinical benefits and improved patient outcomes associated with minimally invasive surgery, Medtronic highlighted a study published in the March 25 online edition of JAMA Surgery.

Particulate air pollution: Exposure to ultrafine particles influences cardiac function

Inhalable particles include all particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10). In this group a distinction is made between even finer particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) in diameter, which can deeply enter the lung, and ultrafine particles with diameters less than 0.1 micrometers (100 nanometers), which can also enter the blood stream.

Date syrup shows promise for fighting bacterial infections

Date syrup - a thick, sweet liquid derived from dates that is widely consumed across the Middle East - shows antibacterial activity against a number of disease-causing bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Rutgers, NIST physicists report technology with potential for sub-micron optical switches

A team that includes Rutgers University and National Institute of Standards and Technology scientists believes that a technology it is reporting this week in Nature Photonics could result in optical switches with sub-square-micron footprints, potentially allowing densely packed switching fabrics on a chip.

Pesticides in fruit and vegetables linked to semen quality

The first study to investigate the relationship between eating fruit and vegetables containing pesticide residues and the quality of men's semen has shown a link with lower sperm counts and percentages of normally-formed sperm.

Panel predicts whether rare leukemia will respond to treatment

Patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia have limited treatment options, and those that exist are effective only in fewer than half of patients. Now, a new study identifies a panel of genetic markers that predicted which tumor samples would likely respond to treatment.

Next important step toward quantum computer

Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another.

Fasting and less-toxic cancer drug may work as well as chemotherapy

Fasting in combination with chemotherapy has already been shown to kill cancer cells, but a pair of new studies in mice suggests that a less-toxic class of drugs combined with fasting may kill breast, colorectal and lung cancer cells equally well.

Stop blaming the moon, says UCLA scientist

"It must be a full moon" is a common refrain when things appear more hectic than usual.

Hidden costs: The unseen way organisms cope with climate change

Scientists have found a way to measure the unseen toll that environmental stress places on living creatures -- showing that they can rev up their metabolism to work more than twice as hard as normal to cope with change.

Hormone fosters bond between parents

Research has discovered a role for prolactin, the hormone that stimulates milk production in nursing mothers, in the bond between parents.

Scientists reveal unique mechanism of natural product with powerful antimicrobial action

Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have uncovered the unique mechanism of a powerful natural product with wide-ranging antifungal, antibacterial, anti-malaria and anti-cancer effects.

200th anniversary of Tambora eruption a reminder of volcanic perils

The 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull grounded thousands of air flights and spread ash over much of western Europe, yet it was puny compared to the eruption 200 years ago of Tambora, a volcano that probably killed more than 60,000 people in what is now Indonesia and turned summer into winter over much of the Northern Hemisphere.

HIV patients experience better kidney transplant outcomes than Hepatitis C patients

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-positive kidney transplant patients experienced superior outcomes when compared to kidney transplant patients with Hepatitis C and those infected with both HIV and Hepatitis C.

Glow in the dark tampons identify sewage pollution in rivers

The natural, untreated cotton in tampons readily absorbs chemicals commonly used in toilet paper, laundry detergents and shampoos.

Early stage NSCLC patients with low tumor metabolic activity have longer survival

Low pre-surgery uptake of a labeled glucose analogue, a marker of metabolic activity, in the primary tumor of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with increased overall survival and a longer time before tumor recurrence.

An apple a day won't keep the doctor away but maybe the pharmacist

Turns out, an apple a day won't keep the doctor away but it may mean you will use fewer prescription medications, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Percentage of children eating fast food on a given day drops

A lower percentage of children are eating fast food on any given day and calories consumed by children from burger, pizza and chicken fast food restaurants also has dropped, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.

Seabed samples rewrite earthquake history near Istanbul

Located in the Marmara Sea, major earthquakes along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) system have repeatedly struck what is current-day Istanbul and the surrounding region, but determining the recurrence rate has proven difficult since the faults are offshore.

Bitter chocolate: Illegal cocoa farms threaten Ivory Coast primates

Researchers surveying for endangered primates in national parks and forest reserves of Ivory Coast found, to their surprise, that most of these protected areas had been turned into illegal cocoa farms, a new study reports.

From tobacco to cyberwood

Humans have been inspired by nature since the beginning of time. We mimic nature to develop new technologies, with examples ranging from machinery to pharmaceuticals to new materials.

Roll up your screen and stow it away?

From smartphones and tablets to computer monitors and interactive TV screens, electronic displays are everywhere.

Cats relax to the sound of music

According to research published today in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery by veterinary clinicians at the University of Lisbon and a clinic in the nearby town of Barreiro in Portugal, music is likewise beneficial for cats in the surgical environment.

Crowdsourced tool for depression

Researchers at MIT and Northwestern University have developed a new peer-to-peer networking tool that enables sufferers of anxiety and depression to build online support communities and practice therapeutic techniques.

Nanomedicine shines light on combined force of nanomedicine and regenerative medicine

Nanomedicine has published a special focus issue on the combined force of nanomedicine and regenerative medicine; two fields that continue to develop at a dramatic pace.

Comet dust: Planet Mercury's 'invisible paint'

A team of scientists has a new explanation for the planet Mercury's dark, barely reflective surface.

Experts explore impacts of childhood feeding practices, policies on vegetable consumption

While the body of evidence for feeding recommendations for children continues to evolve, one constant remains: Children do not eat enough vegetables.

Building block for memory and learning identified

Researchers have been fascinated for a long time by learning and memory formation, and many questions are still open.

Promoting maternal interaction improves growth, weight gain in preemies

An intervention to teach mothers of preterm infants how to interact with their babies more effectively results in better weight gain and growth for the infants, according to a study funded in part by the National Institutes of Health.

Teens with breast lumps may be able to avoid invasive biopsy

If a lump is found in the breast of an adolescent girl, she often will undergo an excisional biopsy. However, breast cancer is rare in adolescents, and the vast majority of teenage breast lumps turn out to be benign masses that are related to hormones and often go away over time.

Electroconvulsive therapy changes key areas of the human brain that play a role in memory, emotion

Although scientists know that depression affects the brain, they don't know why some people respond to treatment while others do not.

BMC study: New Hepatitis C treatments cost-effective, but only for selected patients

A study led by Boston Medical Center (BMC) researchers demonstrates that while new therapies to treat Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are highly effective, they are cost-effective and provide the greatest value in specific groups of HCV-infected patients.

The 100 million year-old piggyback

Scientists have uncovered the earliest fossilised evidence of an insect caring for its young.

World first study reveals antibodies that may trigger psychosis in children

A world first study revealing the presence of two antibodies in a sub-group of children experiencing their first episode of psychosis affirms a longstanding recognition that auto-immune disorders play a significant role in psychiatric illness.

Blood-based biomarkers could enable simple, accurate TB tests for diagnosis and monitoring

Researchers have identified blood-based biomarkers in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB) that could lead to new blood-based diagnostics and tools for monitoring treatment response and cure.

Researchers observe major hand hygiene problems in operating rooms

An observational study by Sahlgrenska Academy researchers at a large Swedish hospital found 2,393 opportunities for hand disinfection and/or aseptic techniques. Doctors and nurses missed 90% of the opportunities.

Intelligent neuroprostheses mimic natural motor control

Neuroscientists are taking inspiration from natural motor control to design new prosthetic devices that can better replace limb function. In new work, researchers have tested a range of brain-controlled devices - from wheelchairs to robots to advanced limbs - that work with their users to intelligently perform tasks.

Consumption of peanuts with a meal benefits vascular health

A study of peanut consumption showed that including them as a part of a high fat meal improved the post-meal triglyceride response and preserved endothelial function.

Odds of reversing ICU patients' preferences to forgo life-sustaining care vary, Penn study finds

Intensive care units across the United States vary widely in how they manage the care of patients who have set preexisting limits on life-sustaining therapies, such as authorizing do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and prohibiting interventions such as feeding tubes or dialysis.

Study debunks common misconception that urine is sterile

Bacteria have been discovered in the bladders of healthy women, discrediting the common belief that normal urine is sterile.

How DNA alarm-system works

The DNA molecule is chemically unstable giving rise to DNA lesions of different nature. That is why DNA damage detection, signaling and repair, collectively known as the DNA damage response, are needed.

E-cigarettes are being accessed by teenagers who are both smokers and non-smokers

One in five teenagers in a large survey has accessed e-cigarettes, and of these, 16% have never otherwise smoked, according to research published in the open access journal BMC Public Health.

Two different fat graft techniques have similar effects on facial skin

Two approaches to fat grafting--injection of fat cells versus fat-derived stem cells--have similar effects in reversing the cellular-level signs of aging skin, reports a study in the April issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery¨, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).

Fat grafting technique improves results of breast augmentation

In women undergoing breast augmentation, a technique using transplantation of a small amount of the patient's own fat cells can produce better cosmetic outcomes, reports a study in the April issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery¨, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).

What is the best measure of depression severity in adolescents?

At present the key symptom for diagnosing major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents is irritability.

Reviewing online homework at scale

In computer-science classes, homework assignments consist of writing programs. It's easy to create automated tests that determine whether a given program yields the right outputs to a series of inputs.

Oxygen therapy in COPD patients is associated with burn injury

Researchers from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have found that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving home oxygen have a higher risk of burn injury.

Rate of opioid misuse is around 25 percent, addiction rate 10 percent, reports study in Pain

New estimates suggest that 20 to 30 percent of opioid analgesic drugs prescribed for chronic pain are misused, while the rate of opioid addiction is approximately 10 percent.

Kids allowed to 'sip' alcohol may start drinking earlier

Children who get a taste of their parents' wine now and then may be more likely than their peers to start drinking by high school, according to a new report in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Oral drug normalizes blood potassium in 98 percent of kidney patients

Patients with chronic kidney disease may be treated with a class of medications called Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System inhibitors (RAASI's).

UH Case Medical Center study looks at social media impact on mental healthcare & treatment

Tweet it. Snap it. Pin it. Post it...or however else you want to share it with the masses scouring the Internet searching for common ground connectivity.

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