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Changing global diets is vital to reducing climate change

A new study, published today in Nature Climate Change, suggests that - if current trends continue - food production alone will reach, if not exceed, the global targets for total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2050.




NYU study compares consequences of teen alcohol and marijuana use

Growing public support for marijuana legalization in the U.S. has led to public debate about whether marijuana is "safer" than other substances, such as alcohol.

Can action movies make you fat?

Is television making us fat? An increasing amount of research shows an association between TV viewing and higher food consumption and a more sedentary lifestyle.

Sugar substance 'kills' good HDL cholesterol, new research finds

Scientists at the University of Warwick have discovered that 'good' cholesterol is turned 'bad' by a sugar-derived substance.

Engineers develop new sensor to detect tiny individual nanoparticles

Nanoparticles, engineered materials about a billionth of a meter in size, are around us every day.

Sierra Nevada freshwater runoff could drop 26 percent by 2100, UC study finds

Freshwater runoff from the Sierra Nevada may decrease by as much as one-quarter by 2100 due to climate warming on the high slopes, according to scientists at UC Irvine and UC Merced.

Nature's tiny engineers

Conventional wisdom has long held that corals - whose calcium-carbonate skeletons form the foundation of coral reefs - are passive organisms that rely entirely on ocean currents to deliver dissolved substances, such as nutrients and oxygen.

Quality of US diet improves, gap widens for quality between rich and poor

The quality of the U.S. diet showed some modest improvement in the last decade in large measure because of a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy trans fats, but the gap in overall diet quality widened between the rich and the poor.

Zooming in for a safe flight

As nocturnal animals, bats are perfectly adapted to a life without light. They emit echolocation sounds and use the delay between the reflected echoes to measure distance to obstacles or prey.

Future solar panels

Conventional photovoltaic technology uses large, heavy, opaque, dark silicon panels, but this could soon change.

Batteryless cardiac pacemaker is based on automatic wristwatch

A new batteryless cardiac pacemaker based on an automatic wristwatch and powered by heart motion was presented at ESC Congress 2014 today by Adrian Zurbuchen from Switzerland. The prototype device does not require battery replacement.

Memory and Alzheimer's: Towards a better comprehension of the dynamic mechanisms

A study just published in the prestigious Nature Neuroscience journal by, Sylvain Williams, PhD, and his team, of the Research Centre of the Douglas Mental Health University Institute and McGill University, opens the door towards better understanding of the neural circuitry and dynamic mechanisms controlling memory as well of the role of an essential element of the hippocampus - a sub-region named the subiculum.

Likely near-simultaneous earthquakes complicate seismic hazard planning for Italy

Before the shaking from one earthquake ends, shaking from another might begin, amplifying the effect of ground motion.

Training your brain to prefer healthy foods

It may be possible to train the brain to prefer healthy low-calorie foods over unhealthy higher-calorie foods, according to new research by scientists at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (USDA HNRCA) at Tufts University and at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Ride-sharing could cut cabs' road time by 30 percent

Cellphone apps that find users car rides in real time are exploding in popularity: The car-service company Uber was recently valued at $18 billion, and even as it faces legal wrangles, a number of companies that provide similar services with licensed taxi cabs have sprung up.

Cannabis withdrawal symptoms common among adolescents treated for substance use disorder

Although cannabis - commonly known as marijuana - is broadly believed to be nonaddictive, a study by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators found that 40 percent of cannabis-using adolescents receiving outpatient treatment for substance use disorder reported experiencing symptoms of withdrawal, which are considered a hallmark of drug dependence.

Plant Life Forms in the Fossil Record: When Did the First Canopy Flowers Appear?

Most plant fossils are isolated organs, making it difficult to reconstruct the type of plant life or its ecosystem structure.

Migrating birds sprint in spring, but take things easy in autumn

Passerine birds, also known as perching birds, that migrate by night tend to fly faster in spring than they do in autumn to reach their destinations.

War between bacteria and phages benefits humans

In the battle between our immune systems and cholera bacteria, humans may have an unknown ally in bacteria-killing viruses known as phages.

Scientists find possible neurobiological basis for tradeoff between honesty, self-interest

What's the price of your integrity? Tell the truth; everyone has a tipping point. We all want to be honest, but at some point, we'll lie if the benefit is great enough. Now, scientists have confirmed the area of the brain in which we make that decision.

Mixing in star-forming clouds explains why sibling stars look alike

The chemical uniformity of stars in the same cluster is the result of turbulent mixing in the clouds of gas where star formation occurs, according to a study by astrophysicists at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Antarctic sea-level rising faster than global rate

A new study of satellite data from the last 19 years reveals that fresh water from melting glaciers has caused the sea-level around the coast of Antarctica to rise by 2cm more than the global average of 6cm.

Doctor revalidation needs to address 7 key issues for success, claims report

New research launched today, 1st September 2014, has concluded that there are seven key issues that need to be addressed to ensure the future success of doctor revalidation, the most profound revision in medical regulation since the Medical Act of 1858.

Permanent AF doubles risk of stroke compared to paroxysmal AF

Permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) doubles the risk of stroke compared to paroxysmal AF, according to research in more than 6 000 patients presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Thomas Vanassche from Belgium.

A nucleotide change could initiate fragile X syndrome

Researchers reveal how the alteration of a single nucleotide-the basic building block of DNA-could initiate fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of intellectual disability.

Quality of US diet shows modest improvement, but overall remains poor

Dietary quality in the U.S. has improved steadily in recent years-spurred in large part by reduced trans fat intake-but overall dietary quality remains poor and disparities continue to widen among socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups, according to a new study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH).

Week-long meeting on naming algae, fungi, and plants recorded for posterity

The week-long discussions and decisions of the Nomenclature Section of the XVIII International Botanical Congress took place in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011.

Faster, cheaper tests for sickle cell

Within minutes after birth, every child in the U.S. undergoes a battery of tests designed to diagnose a host of conditions, including sickle cell disease.

Coffee increases prediabetes risk in susceptible young adults

Coffee increases the risk of prediabetes in young adults with hypertension who are slow caffeine metabolisers, according to results from the HARVEST study presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Lucio Mos from Italy.

Single laser stops molecular tumbling motion instantly

In the quantum world, making the simple atom behave is one thing, but making the more complex molecule behave is another story.

Scientists get set for simulated nuclear inspection

Some 40 scientists and technicians from around the world will descend on Jordan in November to take part in a simulated on-site inspection of a suspected nuclear test site on the banks of the Dead Sea.

Invisible blood in urine may indicate bladder cancer

New research which finds that invisible blood in urine may be an early warning sign of bladder cancer is likely to shape guidelines for clinicians.

Why plants in the office make us more productive

'Green' offices with plants make staff happier and more productive than 'lean' designs stripped of greenery, new research shows.

Research letter: Viewers ate more while watching Hollywood action flick on TV

Television shows filled with action and sound may be bad for your waistline. TV viewers ate more M&Ms, cookies, carrots and grapes while watching an excerpt from a Hollywood action film than those watching an interview program.

Health structures explain nearly 20 percent of non-adherence to heart failure guidelines

Health structures explain nearly 20% of the non-adherence to heart failure guidelines, according to the results of a joint ESC-OECD study presented today at ESC Congress by Professor Aldo Maggioni. Clinical variables explained more than 80% of non-adherence.

Discovery hints at why stress is more devastating for some

Some people take stress in stride; others are done in by it. New research at Rockefeller University has identified the molecular mechanisms of this so-called stress gap in mice with very similar genetic backgrounds - a finding that could lead researchers to better understand the development of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression.

New tuberculosis blood test in children is reliable and highly specific

A new blood test provides a fast and accurate tool to diagnose tuberculosis in children, a new proof-of-concept study shows. The newly developed test (TAM-TB assay) is the first reliable immunodiagnostic assay to detect active tuberculosis in children.

Scientists develop 'electronic nose' for rapid detection of C. diff infection

A fast-sensitive "electronic-nose" for sniffing the highly infectious bacteria C. diff, that causes diarrhoea, temperature and stomach cramps, has been developed by a team at the University of Leicester.

Experts defend operational earthquake forecasting, counter critiques

Experts defend operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) in an editorial published in the Seismological Research Letters (SRL), arguing the importance of public communication as part of a suite of activities intended to improve public safety and mitigate damage from earthquakes.

Family dinners reduce effects of cyberbullying in adolescents

Sharing regular family meals with children may help protect them from the effects of cyberbullying, according to a study by McGill professor Frank Elgar, Institute for Health and Social Policy.

Location of body fat can increase hypertension risk

People with fat around their abdominal area are at greater risk of developing hypertension when compared to those with similar body mass index but fat concentrations elsewhere on the body, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Scientists call for investigation of mysterious cloud-like collections in cells

About 50 years ago, electron microscopy revealed the presence of tiny blob-like structures that form inside cells, move around and disappear.

Researchers find Asian camel crickets now common in US homes

With their long, spiky legs and their propensity for eating anything, including each other, camel crickets are the stuff of nightmares.

Mechanical heart valves increase pregnancy risk

The fact that mechanical heart valves increase risks during and after pregnancy, has been confirmed by data from the ROPAC registry presented for the first time today in an ESC Congress Hot Line session by Professor Jolien W. Roos-Hesselink, co-chair with Professor Roger Hall of the registry's executive committee.

WSU 'deadly force' lab finds racial disparities in shootings

Participants in an innovative Washington State University study of deadly force were more likely to feel threatened in scenarios involving black people.

AF mortality and morbidity high at 1 year despite good anticoagulant use

Mortality and morbidity of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients remains high at one year despite good use of oral anticoagulants, according to the one year follow up of the Atrial Fibrillation General Pilot Registry.

Retrievable transcatheter aortic valve effective and safe in real world setting

A retrievable and repositionable transcatheter aortic valve is effective and safe in a real world setting, according to research presented at ESC Congress 2014 today by Dr Stylianos Pyxaras from Germany.

New method predicts optimal number and location of AEDs

A new method to predict the optimal number and location of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) was presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Benjamin Dahan from France.

Fruit consumption cuts CVD risk by up to 40 percent

Daily fruit consumption cuts the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by up to 40%, according to research presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Huaidong Du from Oxford, UK.

Simple awareness campaign in general practice identifies new cases of AF

A simple awareness campaign in general practice identifies new cases of atrial fibrillation (AF), according to research presented at ESC Congress today by Professor Jean-Marc Davy from France.

ROCKET AF trial suggests that digoxin increases risk of death in AF patients

Digoxin may increase the risk of death in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by approximately 20%, according to results from the ROCKET AF trial presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Manesh Patel, director of interventional cardiology and catheterisation labs at Duke University Health System in Durham, North Carolina, US.

Exceptionally well preserved insect fossils from the Rhône Valley

In Bavaria, the Tithonian Konservat-Lagerstätte of lithographic limestone is well known as a result of numerous discoveries of emblematic fossils from that area (for example, Archaeopteryx).

The key to drilling wells with staying power in the developing world

What happens after a well is drilled, fitted with a hand pump, and a community celebrates having access to clean water for the first time? Half of them break down in a year.

Surprising new role for calcium in sensing pain

When you accidentally touch a hot oven, you rapidly pull your hand away. Although scientists know the basic neural circuits involved in sensing and responding to such painful stimuli, they are still sorting out the molecular players.

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