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'Tequila' powered biofuels more efficient than corn or sugar
Agave tequilana, the plant native to Mexico used to make tequila, could prove to be an efficient alternative to sugarcane and corn to make biofuels in semi-arid regions.
NIH researchers discover gene for rare disease of excess bone tissue growth
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered a second gene that causes melorheostosis, a rare group of conditions involving an often painful and disfiguring overgrowth of bone tissue.
New quantum technology could help diagnose and treat heart condition
The conductivity of living organs, such as the heart, could be imaged non-invasively using quantum technology developed by UCL researchers, which has the potential to revolutionise the diagnosis and treatment of atrial fibrillation.
First FDA-approved drug for thyroid eye disease effective regardless of age, gender
Teprotumumab, the first FDA-approved medicine for thyroid eye disease, provides significant improvement in eye bulging, regardless of patient gender, age or smoking status, according to a study accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.

Wearable device lets patients with type 2 diabetes safely use affordable insulin option
Adults with type 2 diabetes requiring insulin therapy can safely achieve good blood sugar control using regular human insulin (RHI) in a wearable, patch-like insulin delivery device called V-Go®.
Understanding the HIV-1 rev regulatory axis may help researchers to halt AIDS progression
HIV infection and replication within a human cell is a complex mechanism that involves multiple steps and several biochemical factors such as nucleic acids and proteins.
Three non-invasive methods used to predict who has NASH agree only about 20% of the time
Researchers and clinicians have been trying to find a way to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without taking a liver tissue biopsy, but according to new research, formulas that aim to predict NASH based on risk factors do not agree with each other and their accuracy varies.
AI as mediator: 'Smart' replies help humans communicate during pandemic
Daily life during a pandemic means social distancing and finding new ways to remotely connect with friends, family and co-workers.
A COVID-19 palliative care pandemic plan: An essential tool
Palliative care physicians have created a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) palliative care plan as an essential tool to provide care and help manage scare resources during the pandemic.
Most internists-in-training feel ill-equipped to treat obesity
Most resident physicians training in internal medicine do not feel adequately prepared to manage obesity in their patients, a new survey from a California residency program finds.

Ocular findings of patients with COVID-19
One-third of COVID-19 patients from Hubei, China, had ocular manifestations, occurring frequently in patients with more severe physical conditions.
On Mars or Earth, biohybrid can turn carbon dioxide into new products
UC Berkeley chemists have created a hybrid system of bacteria and nanowires that captures energy from sunlight and transfers it to the bacteria to turn carbon dioxide and water into organic molecules and oxygen.
Flooding stunted 2019 cropland growing season, resulting in more atmospheric CO2
A new Caltech-JPL study determines the impact of the severe 2019 floods, and offers scientists a new tool for measuring regional-scale carbon dioxide absorption by plants.
Coconut oil reduces features of metabolic syndrome in obese females, animal study finds
Obese females that ate a small amount of coconut oil daily, even as part of a high-fat diet, had decreased features of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that raise the chances of developing diabetes, heart disease and stroke, an animal study finds.
Artificial intelligence can help some businesses but may not work for others
The temptation for businesses to use artificial intelligence and other technology to improve performance, drive down labor costs, and better the bottom line is understandable.
Two COVID-19 papers published in PLOS ONE
Two studies of the coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak recently published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.

Scientists modify CAR-T cells to target multiple sites on leukemia cells
In a preclinical study, scientists engineer new CAR-T cells to attack three sites on leukemia cells, instead of one.
Transgender teens have high rates of depression, suicidal thoughts
Two-thirds of transgender teens have depression, and many also have suicidal thoughts and self-injuring behavior, according to research accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Ultrabright X-ray bursts reveal how plants respond to light within fraction of a second
Scientists have revealed intricate structural changes in plants, fungi and bacteria in response to light, according to a new study published today in the open-access journal eLife.
New artificial intelligence system can empower medical professionals in diagnosing skin diseases
Researchers in Korea have developed a deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm that can accurately classify cutaneous skin disorders, predict malignancy, suggest primary treatment options, and serve as an ancillary tool to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of clinicians.
Study links brain function changes to genetic risk in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis
Genetic studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that it takes many common genetic variations combining together in one individual to increase risk substantially.
Housing insecurity may increase risk of kidney disease
In a study of urban-dwelling individuals, housing insecurity was linked with a higher risk of developing albuminuria, a sign of kidney disease.
Amyloid formation drives brain tissue loss in animal studies
Amyloid plaque formation directly causes brain tissue loss in animals, but a drug called lithium reduces the life shortening effects of this loss, shows a new study published today in eLife.

Heavy drinking into older age adds 4 cm to waistline
More than half of drinkers aged 59 and over have been heavy drinkers and this is linked to a significantly larger waistline and increased stroke risk, according to a new UCL study.
Needing a change? Researchers find GABA is the key to metamorphosis
Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba found that the neurotransmitter GABA is an essential regulator of metamorphosis in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis.
Untangling the social lives of spiders
Scientists begin to unravel the genetic mechanism by which a solitary spider becomes a social one.
Perspectives on COVID-19 control measures for ophthalmology clinics
This article describes treatment initiatives being undertaken for novel coronavirus 2019 at an ophthalmology center in Singapore.
Extreme high-frequency signals enable terabits-per-second data links
Using the same technology that allows high-frequency signals to travel on regular phone lines, researchers tested sending extremely high-frequency, 200 GHz signals through a pair of copper wires.
Surgical considerations for tracheostomy during COVID-19 pandemic
Lessons learned from the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic may help reduce the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), to health care workers performing open tracheostomies, a surgical procedure to open an airway that may be required for many patients with COVID-19.
Cancer research, the guardian of the genome has a new ally
They identified a protein that, like a switch, controls the onset of cell death processes in cancer cells, which are regulated by p53, the protein known as 'the guardian of the genome.' The findings will be used to develop more tailored and effective cancer treatments.
Visual feedback enhances activation of muscle movement in response to bodily sensation
Visual feedback is just as important as a sense of body position when it comes to the involuntary reflexes that activate muscle movement, says a new study in the open-access journal eLife.

Textile-fiber-embedded multiluminescent device for future wearable devices
Dr. Soon Moon Jeong's research team in the Division of Energy Technology at DGIST has developed a new structure of luminescence technology.
Covid-19 deaths in Italian hospitals are today increasing at maximum rate and significant numbers will continue to die until at least mid-April
A new report on Covid-19 data up to March 30 from Italy, prepared by an Italian expert for the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA), says that the number of daily deaths in Italian hospitals is today still accelerating at the maximum rate, and significant numbers of deaths in hospital are likely to continue until at least mid-April and could go on until early June.
Some mobile phone apps may contain hidden behaviors that users never see
A team of cybersecurity researchers has discovered that a large number of cell phone applications contain hardcoded secrets allowing others to access private data or block content provided by users.
Not just for bones! X-rays can now tell us about soft tissues too
A new X-ray imaging technique could identify lesions and tumors before ultrasound or MRI can.
The leptin activator: New study reveals brain receptor key to burning brown fat
In a new study published in Nature Communications, Michigan researchers reveal a pathway by which the hormone leptin contributes to weight loss.
The architecture of a 'shape-shifting' norovirus
Every picture tells a story... none more so than this detailed visualisation of a strain of the norovirus.
Infants prefer individuals who achieve their goals efficiently
From birth, we acquire information and learn through interacting with others; that is why it is so important to be able to identify the most suitable individuals to interact with.
Infants introduced early to solid foods show gut bacteria changes that may portend future health risks
Infants who were started on solid foods at or before three months of age showed changes in the levels of gut bacteria and bacterial byproducts, called short-chain fatty acids, measured in their stool samples, according to a study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
A new mechanism triggering cell death and inflammation: A left turn that kills
Writing in 'Nature', researchers from Cologne, Texas and London describe their discovery of a new mechanism that could contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.
Fake Russian Twitter accounts politicized discourse about vaccines
Activity from phony Twitter accounts established by the Russian Internet Research Agency (IRA) between 2015 and 2017 may have contributed to politicizing Americans' position on the nature and efficacy of vaccines, a health care topic which has not historically fallen along party lines, according to new research published in the American Journal of Public Health.
Police officers' views before and after Ferguson counter accuracy of Ferguson effect
A new longitudinal study examined whether the Ferguson Effect was real.
Unconscious food cravings may make bariatric surgery less effective for extreme obesity
Patients with extreme obesity are prone to unconscious food impulses and cravings that may make it challenging for them to maintain weight loss after bariatric surgery, according to research that was accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and will be published in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Genetic processes that determine short-sightedness discovered by researchers
Three previously unknown genetic mechanisms have been discovered in causing myopia otherwise known as short or near-sightedness, finds a new study.
Technology use by adults with type 1 diabetes lower among African-Americans, Hispanics
Continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) devices are known to improve outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet African-American and Hispanic patients face barriers to the use of these devices, according to results of a small single-center retrospective study.
Autophagy: Scientists discover novel role for self-recycling process in the brain
Proteins classically associated with autophagy regulate the speed of intracellular transport.
Organic soybean producers can be competitive using little or no tillage
Organic soybean producers using no-till and reduced-tillage production methods that incorporate cover crops -- strategies that protect soil health and water quality -- can achieve similar yields at competitive costs compared to tillage-based production.
Mesoamerican copper smelting technology aided colonial weaponry
Spanish conquerors depended on indigenous expertise to keep up their munitions supplies, archaeologists have found.
New UC Davis research suggests parents should limit screen media for preschoolers
New research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics this week says screen time for children should be limited.
Where in the brain does creativity come from? Evidence from jazz musicians
A new brain-imaging study out of Drexel University's Creativity Research Lab studied the brain activity of jazz guitarists during improvisation to show that creativity is, in fact, driven primarily by the right hemisphere in musicians who are comparatively inexperienced at improvisation.
Studies find link between belief in conspiracy theories and political engagement
A belief in the existence of conspiracies seems to go hand-in-hand with the assumption that political violence is an acceptable option
Russian trolls on Twitter polarized vaccination during 2016 election cycle
During the 2016 election cycle, politically polarizing tweets by Russian trolls about vaccination included pro- and anti-vaccination messages targeted at people with specific political inclinations through a nine different fake persona types, according to a new study.
New pathogen threatens fennel yield in Italy
A new fungal genus and species Ochraceocephala foeniculi causes fennel yield losses of about 20-30% for three different cultivars.
Underactive thyroid more common in people working long hours
Adults who work long hours are more likely to have hypothyroidism, which is an underactive thyroid, according to study results accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
CVIA has just published a new issue, Volume 4 Issue 3
The journal Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) has just published a new issue, Volume 4 Issue 3 with an invitation to join the International Brugada Electrocardiographic Indices Registry.
Discovery of new biomarker in blood could lead to early test for Alzheimer's disease
UC San Diego researchers discovered that high blood levels of RNA produced by the PHGDH gene could serve as a biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.
Survey finds physicians struggle to communicate positive thyroid cancer prognosis
Despite excellent prognosis with most thyroid cancers, many newly diagnosed patients have cancer-related worry, and physicians vary in their responses to patients' worry, according to new research accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Emotional abuse, neglect affect adolescent depression differently by gender, ethnicity
Research shows that physical and sexual abuse are risk factors for depression in adolescents.
Safety recommendations for health care workers involved with head, neck exams, surgery during COVID-19 pandemic
Health care workers who come in close contact with a patient's head and neck are particularly at risk for developing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) through respiratory droplets.
Androgen receptor stops tumor growth in the most common form of breast cancer
Researchers say they have found a viable new therapeutic strategy for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, even cancers that are resistant to current standard of care treatments.
Sediments may control location, magnitude of megaquakes
The world's most powerful earthquakes strike at subduction zones, areas where enormous amounts of stress build up as one tectonic plate dives beneath another.
Controlling coronavirus transmission using a mobile app to trace close proximity contacts
A team of medical researchers and bioethicists at Oxford University has published results today in Science that furthers our understanding of coronavirus transmission.
NASA, University of Nebraska release new global groundwater maps
NASA researchers have developed new satellite-based, weekly global maps of soil moisture and groundwater wetness conditions.
Hubble finds best evidence for elusive mid-sized black hole
Astronomers have found the best evidence for the perpetrator of a cosmic homicide: a black hole of an elusive class known as ''intermediate-mass,'' which betrayed its existence by tearing apart a wayward star that passed too close.
Researchers offer hope for an oral, noninjectable treatment of acromegaly
Adults who need medical maintenance treatment of the growth hormone disorder acromegaly respond well to an investigational oral form of the drug octreotide, investigators of the Chiasma OPTIMAL study reported.
Less expensive, more effective pneumonia vaccines are tested in humans
Developed by researchers at the Butantan Institute (Brazil) and Boston Children's Hospital, part of the Harvard Medical School (USA), the innovation is capable of providing protection against all serotypes of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Researchers gain new insights into pain signaling in the brain
In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have mapped how a potent neuropeptide binds to a brain receptor involved in causing human pain.
Cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors may lead to thyroid dysfunction
Thyroid dysfunction following cancer treatment with new treatments called immune checkpoint inhibitors is more common than previously thought, according to research that was accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and will be published in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Liraglutide can help adolescents with obesity manage their weight
Liraglutide 3.0 mg, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity to help adults with obesity manage their weight, appears to help adolescents too, according to an industry-sponsored randomized controlled trial.
Caring for seniors during COVID-19 pandemic
Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University School of Medicine scientist Kathleen Unroe, MD, MHA, and colleagues lay out guidelines and best practices for healthcare providers and family caregivers who are providing care for older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Bariatric surgery may be effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Bariatric surgery may be an effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), suggests a new study accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
New study explores fiscal issues related to NYC teachers retirement system
With city contributions totaling $37 billion in 2018, or 6 percent of tax revenue, TRS has two important characteristics that distinguish it from most other public pension plans in the nation.
China's control measures may have prevented 700,000 COVID-19 cases
China's control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic may have delayed the spread of the virus to cities outside of Wuhan by several days and prevented more than 700,000 infections nationwide, according to an international team of researchers.
New electrically activated material could improve braille readers
Refreshable braille displays translate information from computer screens into raised characters.
Medical manufacturers with female directors act more quickly and frequently on recalls
Medical product companies, such as those that make pharmaceuticals and medical devices, make recall decisions quite differently as women are added to their board of directors, according to a new study by professors at four universities, including Indiana University.
To tune up your quantum computer, better call an AI mechanic
A paper in the journal Physical Review Applied outlines a way to teach an AI to make an interconnected set of adjustments to the quantum dots that could form the qubits in a quantum computer's processor.
Virtual cell predicts how close tumor environment influences cancer metastasis
IGC Researchers identify signals emitted by the tumor environment, which controls the migrating capacity of cancer cells.
Total-body PET imaging successfully identifies antibodies up to 30 days after injection
Combining 89Zr-labeled antibodies with total-body positron emission tomography (PET) has extended the utility of novel total-body PET scanners, providing suitable images up to 30 days after the initial injection, according to research published in the March issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Cooperative male dolphins match the tempo of each other's calls
When it comes to working together, male dolphins coordinate their behavior just like us.
When warblers warn of cowbirds, blackbirds get the message
This is the story of three bird species and how they interact.
Hypothyroidism patients cite effectiveness in choosing alternative to standard therapy
Three in four hypothyroidism patients who chose desiccated thyroid extract (DTE) over the standard therapy said this option was more effective than other thyroid hormone medications, according to an analysis of comments in online patient forums accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Challenges for Russia's agriculture: new special issue in Russian Journal of Economics
While Russia seems to have tackled its historic problem: food shortage -- with the agri-food sector becoming one of the most steadily developing of the national economy in the last decade -- there is a new set of challenges.
Preservation of testicular cells to save endangered feline species
A research team at the German Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) developed a method to isolate and cryopreserve testicular cells.
Examining racial disparities in prostate cancer survival
Data for nearly 230,000 men were used in this study to examine variations in survival in prostate cancer by geographic areas in the United States.
Study shows potential for using fiber-optic networks to assess ground motions during earthquakes
A new study from a University of Michigan researcher and colleagues at three institutions demonstrates the potential for using existing networks of buried optical fibers as an inexpensive observatory for monitoring and studying earthquakes.
Environmental features attracting older adults to physical activity differ among neighbourhood types
Environmental features perceived as motivating for outdoor mobility and levels of physical activity were investigated alongside the neighbourhood types in which the older adults lived.
Injuries from motorized scooters
Motorized scooters are increasingly popular and, in this study, researchers analyzed medical information for 61 adults who visited a single emergency department with scooter-related injuries.
Scientists tap unused energy source to power smart sensor networks
The electricity that lights our homes and powers our appliances also creates small magnetic fields that are present all around us.
Men with erectile dysfunction may face higher risk of death
Men with erectile dysfunction have a higher risk of death, regardless of their testosterone levels, suggests a study accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Poor fitness may impede long-term success in weight loss program
People who are very out of shape when they begin a behavioral weight loss program lose less weight in the long term than those who are more fit, suggests a new study that was accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and will be published in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
A pilot study of the sequencing of the intestinal microbiota for colon cancer
In this study, they compare two sequencing methods and design a bioinformatic analysis to establish the basis of a wide study in the research of early detection markers of colon cancer.
Hubble finds best evidence for elusive mid-size black hole
New data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have provided the strongest evidence yet for mid-sized black holes in the Universe.
Fracking chemical may interfere with male sex hormone receptor
A chemical used in hydraulic fracturing, commonly called fracking, has the potential to interfere with reproductive hormones in men, according to research accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Individuals taking class of steroid medications at high risk for COVID-19
Individuals taking a class of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids for conditions such as asthma, allergies and arthritis on a routine basis may be unable to mount a normal stress response and are at high risk if they are infected with the virus causing COVID-19, according to a new editorial published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Consuming extra calories can help exercising women avoid menstrual disorders
Exercising women who struggle to consume enough calories and have menstrual disorders can simply increase their food intake to recover their menstrual cycle, according to a study accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Artificial intelligence could help predict future diabetes cases
A type of artificial intelligence called machine learning can help predict which patients will develop diabetes, according to an ENDO 2020 abstract that will be published in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Thyroid hormone use may raise death risk in older adults
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy in older adults is associated with a higher risk of death compared with no treatment, a large study finds.
Purdue innovators moving to fast-track COVID-19 diagnostic, therapeutic solutions
As the coronavirus pandemic spreads across the globe, Purdue University scientists are working to move solutions to diagnose and treat the virus to the marketplace as soon as possible.
Targeting a transporter to treat SHH medulloblastoma
Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have identified a novel target for a type of pediatric brain tumor.
Assessing forests from afar
A new study led by the University of Delaware's Pinki Mondal recommends that in addition to using large swaths of coarse satellite data to evaluate forests on a national scale, it is important for countries to prioritize areas such as national parks and wildlife refuges and use finer scale data in those protected areas to make sure that they are maintaining their health and are being reported on accurately.
Insurance coverage key to timely care in head and neck cancer cases
A study published in the JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery examines the effect of Medicaid expansion on head and neck cancer patients, finding that the expansions under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) were associated with improved access to care for these patients and selective Medicaid expansion may worsen existing regional disparities in terms of access to care and outcomes.
Two types of diabetes drugs similarly effective in reducing heart and kidney disease
Two newer types of medications commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes are similar in their ability to reduce major heart complications, including heart attack, stroke and death from cardiovascular disease, according to research accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Atomic magnetometer points to better picture of heart conductivity
Mapping the electrical conductivity of the heart would be a valuable tool in diagnosis and disease management, but doing so would require invasive procedures, which aren't capable of directly mapping dielectric properties.
Novel cell-based cancer immunotherapy shows promise in early studies
Scientists have developed a new immunotherapy that eradicates solid tumours in mice without adverse side effects, according to a new study published today in eLife.
Reduced off-odor of plastic recyclates via separate collection of packaging waste
Plastic recyclates produced from waste packaging have to meet high sensory requirements in order to be used for new products.
Quantum-entangled light from a vibrating membrane
Researchers from the Quantum Optomechanics group at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, recently entangled two laser beams through bouncing them off the same mechanical resonator, a tensioned membrane.
Broken bone location can have significant impact on long-term health
In older individuals, the location of a broken bone can have significant impacts on long-term health outcomes, according to research accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and publication in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Experiences of undesired effects of hormonal contraception
A study of women who experienced mental ill-health from a hormonal contraception indicates they value their mental well-being higher than a satisfactory sex life.

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